Mini is a small economy car produced by the British-based British motor Corporation and its successors from 1959 until 2000. The original is an icon of 1960s British pop culture. Compact transverse engine and front-wheel drive layout allows 80% of the area of the bottom of the machine will be used for the carriage of passengers and Luggage – influenced a generation of car makers. In 1999 the Mini was voted the second most influential car of the 20th century, behind the Ford model T, and ahead of the Citroen DS and "VW beetle". Front-wheel drive, transverse-engine layout mini has been copied for other "supermini" designs including Honda N360, Nissan cherry, and Fiat 127. The layout has been adapted for large projects subcompact.
This distinctive two-door car was designed for BMC Sir Alec Issigonis. It was manufactured at the Longbridge and Cowley plants in England, the Victoria Park / zetland British Motor Corporation Australia factory in Sydney, Australia, and later also in Spain Authi, Belgium, Chile, Italy Innocenti, Malta, Portugal, South Africa, Uruguay, Venezuela and Yugoslavia. Mini mark I had three major UK updates – the mark II, the Club, and mark III. They had a whole series of variations, including station wagons, pickup truck, van and mini-Moak, a jeep like buggy.
Versions, the Mini Cooper and Cooper "S" was successful, as both race and rally, winning the Rally Monte Carlo in 1964, 1965 and 1967. In 1966 the first mini along with nine other cars were disqualified after the finish, in a controversial decision that the headlights of the cars was against the rules.
At its introduction in August 1959, the mini-market under the Austin and Morris names as the Austin Seven and Morris mini-minor. The Austin seven was renamed to Austin mini in January 1962 and mini became a brand in its own right in 1969. In 1980 it once again became the Austin mini and in 1988, just "mini" although the "Rover" sign is used on some models exported to Japan.
BMW acquired the Rover group and British Leyland previously in 1994 and sold most of it in 2000, but retained the right to build cars using the mini name.
1. Design and development. (Проектирование и разработка)
Mini has arisen because of fuel shortages caused by the Suez crisis of 1956. Gasoline once again rationed in the UK, sales of large cars fell, and the market for German bubble cars boomed, even in countries such as the UK, where cars were still a rarity. Fiat 500, launched in 1957, was also extremely successful, especially in his native Italy.
Leonard Lord, the somewhat autocratic head of BMC, allegedly hated these cars so much that he vowed to rid the streets of them and design a proper miniature car. He laid down some basic design requirements – the vehicle must be in a box that measured 10×4×4 ft 3.0×1.2×1.2 m, and technical accommodation should occupy 6 ft 1.8 m 10 ft 3.0 m long, and the engine, for reasons of economy, should be an existing unit.
Alec Issigonis worked for Alvis, had been recruited back to BMC in 1955 with a brief from the Lord to develop a number of technologically advanced cars in the same pioneering spirit as his earlier Morris minor to complement the cube of the existing traditional models. Issigonis was a design for three cars – large and small family cars and small cars economy class. His initial work was on a large vehicle, designated XC9001 with a small car, XC9003 having the lowest priority, despite its Issigoniss greatest personal interest. With the lords saying to produce bubble machine competitor, and its revised requirements for the construction laid in October 1956, the work XC9001 stopped and XC9003 has become a priority. The team that designed the mini was remarkably small, in addition to Issigonis, Jack Daniels, who worked with him on the Morris minor, Chris Kingham, who had been with him at Alvis, two students-engineers and four draughtsmen worked on the project. Together since July 1957, they designed and built the original prototype XC9003, which is affectionately named "the orange box" because of its color. Leonard Lord approved the car for production on July 19 and XC9003 was ADO15 project.
In the ADO15 used a conventional BMC a series four-cylinder water-cooled engine, but departed from tradition by mounting it transversely, With the engine oil lubrication, four-speed gearbox in the sump and through the use of front-wheel-drive. Almost all small front-wheel-drive cars developed since have used a similar configuration, with the exception of the gearbox is usually attached separately, rather than using the engine oil. The radiator was mounted on the left side of the car so that the engine-mounted fan could be retained, but with reversed pitch so it blew air into the natural low pressure area under the front wing. This location saved vehicle length but had the disadvantage of power supply the radiator with air which had been heated passing through the engine. He also exposed the entire ignition system direct input of rainwater through the grille. Early prototypes used existing 948 CC a series fully, but it gave ADO15 with performance much more than its cost and the necessary goal of a maximum speed of over 90 miles per hour. The engine was reduced to a new 848-CC capacity with a shorter stroke. This reduced capacity from 37 to 33 BHP and has caused a significant drop in torque, which provides a more realistic representation, especially when ADO15 body was widened by 2 inches 5.08 cm for XC9003 prototype, which blunted the cars maximum speed, improving stability and roadholding. Even so, ADO15 had a top speed of 75 mph, which was better than many other economy cars of the time.
Suspension system, developed Issigoniss friend Dr. Alex Moulton at Moulton developments companies, used compact rubber cones instead of conventional springs. This compact design also showed the progressive growth rates arise from cones and provides natural damping, in addition to the normal dampers. Built into the subframes, the rubber cone system gave a raw and bumpy ride exacerbated by the woven-webbing seats, but the rigidity of the rubber cones, together with wheels positioned on the corners of the car, gave the mini go kart-like handling.
Was originally planned interconnected system of fluid, similar to the one that Alec Issigonis and Alex Moulton were working in the mid-1950s at Alvis. They assessed the mechanically interconnected Citroen 2CV suspension at that time, according to Moulton interview with the magazine in the late 1990-ies that inspired the creation of a hydrolastic suspension system for the mini and the Morris and Austin 1100, to try to keep the benefits of the 2CV system but with added roll stiffness that the 2CV lacked. A short time of the cars development said it was not ready to run mini. System intended for the mini was further developed and the hydrolastic system was first used on the Morris 1100, launched in 1962, bought a mini-system later in 1964. Started, easier Mini pendant is made of biconical spring of durable rubber. It was compact, saving on intrusion into the cabin space, and requires no maintenance. Fully independent suspension rubber cones provided almost unheard of in an inexpensive car. The conical shape given the sources of progressive actions, it becomes stiffer at higher compression ratios. It gave ADO15 smooth ride on small bumps, but to minimize pitch and roll on more uneven surfaces. It also allowed the springs to cope with the huge difference in load between the empty car is about 600 kg or 1300 LB and a fully loaded one is just over 1000 kg or 2.240 pounds, or 70%.
Was determined by ten-inch wheels 254 mm, so the new bus was developed, the initial contract will be Dunlop. Issigonis went to Dunlop stating that he wanted even smaller, 8 in 203 mm wheels, although he had already settled on the 10 inch. The contract was made on a 10-inch size, after Dunlop rejected the eight-inch proposition.
Many functions have been developed in ADO15s interior to maximize passenger and Luggage compartment on top of the significant savings permitted by the transverse-engine and 10 inch wheels. Sliding Windows allowed single-skin doors will be installed, improving space and reduce costs. Was bracing bar mounted on the door frame to tie one of the skin, and it was later adapted into a large bunker on each door. Then Issigonis said that he had the size of the bins to carry the ingredients from his favorite drink, a Martini in the right proportions one bottle of vermouth and 27 Gordons gin. Similar bunkers were provided to the lateral rear seats, also serving the dual function of locking in the single-skin panel body. Small items can also be stowed under the rear seats, and early Minis were sold with optional wicker baskets special shape to slot under the seat. Fixed shelf rear parcel contributed to the rigidity of the body shell, even though it prevents the installation ADO15 with a hatchback. The boot lid was hinged at the bottom so that the car can be with it open to increase Luggage space. On early cars the number plate was hinged at the top, so that it may swing to remain visible when the boot lid was open. This feature was later discontinued after it was discovered that exhaust gases could leak into the cabin when the trunk was opened.
Mini was designed as a monocoque shell with welded seams visible on the outside of the car and running down the columns, and between the body and the floor. Those that ran from the base of stand to the wheels has been described as a twisted lit. turned outwards to provide more space for the front seats. To further simplify construction, the hinges for the doors and boot lid were mounted externally. This also saved a small amount of cabin space. He also made ADO15 very easy to assemble complete knockdown kits in foreign markets with the only major industry. Cars can be collected with minimal use of spinners as the outer seams of the panels are largely self-aligning. They also allowed panels should be stacked flat on top of each other, making it easy to transport. As originally built, all structural body panels was welded to the top of the single tap floor, but it caused serious problems with water ingress into the cabin and was quickly changed in the first months of production.
Early prototypes was completely unitary in construction, but the machine collapsed under high load from a big ratio of leverage used with the rubber suspension of the diffuser. The design was modified to use steel subframes carrying the drivetrain and suspension for the front and rear. It also simplified production, since the subframes can be created independently, and then paired already completed the body. He also opened the ability to easily produce variants on ADO15 as a body of any shape or design may be used provided that it can accommodate stretchers.
In 1959, BMC and Alec Issigonis won the Dewar Trophy for the development and production of mini.
Mini shape had become so well known that by 1990 Rover group – the heirs to BMC – were able to register its design as a trademark in its own right.
2. Mark I Mini: 1959-1967. (Марк Я Мини: 1959-1967)
The production version of the MINI was demonstrated to the press in April 1959 and by August several thousand cars had been collected for sale. The mini was officially announced on 26 August 1959. Some 2.000 cars had already been sent abroad and was shown that day in nearly 100 countries.
The first example, a Morris mini-minor with the registration 621 AOK, is on display at the heritage motor Centre in Warwickshire. Another early example from 1959 is on display at the National motor Museum in Hampshire.
Mini-cube market under two key brands, Austin and Morris until 1969, when it became a marque in its own right. The Morris version was known to all as "mini" or "Morris mini minor". It seems to have been a play on words: the Morris minor was a large, well known and successful car that continued in production, and small translates from Latin as "small", so the abbreviation is from the Latin word "least" – the little finger – has been used for a new car even less. One name proposed for the almost identical Austin version was Austin Newmarket, but it was sold as the Austin seven is sometimes written as SE7EN in early promotional materials – 7, using the letter V rotated counterclockwise, so it approximated the number 7, which recalled the popular small Austin 7 of the 1920s and 1930s years.
Until 1962, the cars appeared in North America and France called the Austin 850 and Morris 850, and in Denmark as the Austin partner until 1964 and Morris mascot until 1981. It was introduced in Australia as the Morris 850 not "Austin", and then as the Morris Cooper and Morris Cooper S version as well. The Morris name mini-mini-minor was first used for Austins version by BMC in 1961 when the Austin seven was renamed to Austin mini, somewhat to the surprise of the sharps commercials car company, later known as bond cars that he already had a minicar for their three-wheeled vehicles since 1949. However, the lawsuit was somehow overcome, and BMC used the name mini thereafter.
In 1964, the suspension of the car was replaced by another Moulton design, the hydrolastic system. The new suspension gave a softer ride but it also increased weight and production costs. In 1971, the original rubber suspension appeared and saved the rest of your life mini.
Since October 1965, the possibility of unique automotive products, designed four-speed automatic transmission became available. Cars fitted with this became the mini-MATIC.
Slowly at the outset, mark I sales strengthened in most of the model lines in the 1960s, and made 1.190.000. Ford purchased a mini and dismantled it to see if they could offer an alternative. Ford determined that the Navy had to lose about 30 pounds for the car, so I decided to create a larger car – the Cortina, released in 1962 – as its competitor in the budget segment. BMC insisted that the way overhead costs of the company were shared out, the mini always made money. Large profits came from the popular De Luxe models and from optional extras such as seat belts, rearview mirrors, heater and radio, which will cover the requirements on modern cars, as well as the various Cooper and Cooper S models.
The mini entered into popular culture in the 1960-ies the well-publicized shopping, movie and music stars.
On the Cooper S version was also used by some British police departments as a plainclothes car.
3. Mark II mini: 1967-1970. (Марк II мини: 1967-1970)
The mark II Mini was launched at the British motor show in 1967, and redesigned grille, larger rear window and numerous cosmetic changes. In all there were 429.000 MK II Minis.
A variety of mini types were made in Pamplona, Spain, by the Authi company from 1968 year, mainly under the name of Morris. In 1969, a fibreglass version of the mini mark II was designed for the British Leylands of the Chilean subsidiary. The body mold was created by the peel engineering company. Production began in 1970 and continued for several years, these fiber mini can be recognized by the missing body seams and large gaps between panels. The Chilean market was never very large, and hyperinflation, and political and social collapse led to the coup of 1973. The Arica plant was closed in 1974. The reason for the fibreglass body was to enable Leyland to meet very strict requirements for local sourcing, increasing to 70.22% in 1971.
4. Mark III: 1969-1976 ADO20. (Марк III: 1969-1976 ADO20)
The mark III mini has a modified bodyshell with enough alterations to see the factory code change from ADO15 to ADO20 which he shared with the club. The most obvious changes were larger doors with concealed hinges. Consumer demand led to the sliding Windows being replaced with winding Windows-although some Australian-manufactured mark I Minis had adopted this feature in 1965 with opening quarterlight Windows. Suspension came back from hydrolastic to rubber cones as a cost-saving measure.
Production at the Cowley plant was ended and the simple name mini completely replaced the separate Austin and Morris brands. In April 1974 a heater became a mini 850 as well, having by that time was already included in the standard specification and other models for some time, standard equipment.
In the late 1970-ies, Innocenti introduced the Innocenti 90 and 120, Bertone-designed hatchbacks based on the mini platform. Bertone also created a mini Cooper equivalent, christened the Innocenti De Tomaso, that sported a 1275 CC engine similar to the mg metro engine but with a 11-stud head, a special inlet manifold and used the "a" clutch instead of the "Verto" type. It is also used homokinetic shafts instead of rubber couplings.
Mini was still popular in Britain, but appeared increasingly outdated in the face of new and more practical competitors. Since the late 1960s, plans were in place for a new and more practical car to replace it, Though the mini was still the only car of this size built by British Leyland for the home market.
5. Mark IV and onwards: 1976-2000. (Марк IV и далее: 1976-2000)
Mark IV was introduced in 1976, although at this stage British Leyland worked on a new small car, which was widely expected to replace the mini before long. He had a front rubber mounted subframe with single tower bolts and the rear frame was introduced some large bushings. Two of the stems column and the wipers appeared as were larger pedals. Since 1977, tail lights, includes reversing lights. In 1980, the engine was upgraded to superior plus a block from the new subway. This was followed by a number of additional changes.
In 1978, the Mini was one of the key vehicles available to disabled motorists under the new motability scheme website.
Reports of the imminent demise of the Minis again surfaced in 1980 with the launch of the Austin mini-metro badging with the word "Mini" in lowercase. Faced with competition from a New wave of modern supermini like the Ford Fiesta, Renault 5 and Volkswagen Polo, mini began to fall out of favor in many export markets, with South Africa, Australia and New Zealand markets all stopping production around this time. Buyers of small cars now wanted a modern and practical design, usually with a hatchback.
Although the mini continued to be produced after the metro launch, production volumes were reduced as British Leyland and its successor the Rover group concentrated on the metro as its key supermini. The original mini last year in the top ten best selling cars in the UK was in 1981, as it came ninth and the metro was fifth. The arrival of the metro was also a big production of Allegro is clipped before it was finally discontinued in 1982. In 1982, BL did 56.297 Minis and 175.000 metro. In the early 1980s, the mini has received many mechanical updates, which were transferred to the subway, for example, with a plus engine, 12 inch wheels with front disc brakes, improved sound insulation and quieter, stronger transmissions. This not only upgraded the Mini, but because many of its major subassemblies were divided now with the metro, very cost-effective to produce, despite the drop in sales. The 25th anniversary Minis came in 1984, British Leyland produced mini 25 limited-edition model to commemorate this event and to clarify the latest modernization of the model. This marked the beginning of a turn in the fate of the Minis. The basic model, such as city and city E using the economy-tuned transmission from the Chloe metro is filled in the lower part of the Austin-Rover Range, and still found buyers who wanted a compact city car that is easy to Park and cheap to operate. Low purchase and operating costs of a constantly popular as a first car for young drivers and Austin Rover introduced a constant stream of limited edition in bright colors, paint, drawings and body decoration to appeal to this market. Mini also becomes valuable as a strong-willed and nostalgic car in its own right, and in the London collection limited edition model was more upmarket and luxurious and is named after the wealthy and fashionable parts of London. This marketing strategy proved highly successful mini production has actually been modest increases in the mid 1980-ies, with 34.974 in 1985 to 35.280 in 1985 39.800 in 1986. By 1990, with the reintroduction of the Very popular Cooper model, mini-production was 40.000. In 1988, Austin Rover decided to keep the mini in production as long as it was viable to do this, putting an end to reports that it will be discontinued in 1991, when the original subway will also be replaced.
The fibreglass mini built in Chile from 1970 to 1974 was not the only fibreglass version in the summer of 1991, a fibreglass bodied mini again entered production, this time in Venezuela. Producer, Facorca, had intended to sell the car in the Caribbean and Central America, and also had plans for Brazilian Assembly.
5.1. Mark IV and onwards: 1976-2000. Mark V: 1984-1990. (Марк V: 1984-1990)
All cars had 8.4-inch 210mm brake discs and plastic wheel arches mini special arches, but retained the same mark IV body shape. The mini Cooper was relaunched in 1989, 20 years after the collapse of the original model. Again it showed a long-1275-CC engine that was in the original Mini Cooper, as well as on many other BMC / BL / ARG models.
5.2. Mark IV and onwards: 1976-2000. Mark III: 1990-1996. (Марк III: 1990-1996)
The point of attachment of the engine was moved forward to take 1275-CC power units, as well as the later horizontal integral float version of the SU carb, plus the single point fuel injected car which came out in 1991. In 998 CC power units were discontinued. The internal opening of the hood installed since 1992.
5.3. Mark IV and onwards: 1976-2000. Mark VII: 1996-2000. (Марк VII: 1996-2000)
It was the final version, twin point injection with front panel radiator. Full-width dashboard replaces the original shelf, internal bonnet release. Introduction of airbag on the drivers side. Basic mini 1.3 I, other models in the range Mini Cooper. The end of production in October 2000 not only marked the end of the original mini produced after 41 years, but also brought about the death of a 1275 CC engine which works in a mini, and many other BL / BMC / ARG cars for over 35 years.
6.1. Options. As Wolseley Hornet and Riley Elf 1961-69 and. (А как Wolseley Hornet и Райли Эльф 1961-69)
Released in 1961 as a more luxurious version of the mini, like the Wolseley Hornet and Riley Elf already, slightly finned rear wings and larger boots that gave the car a more conventional three-box design. Wheelbase of the Elf and Hornet remained at 2.036 m 6.68 m, and the total length was increased to 3.27 m 10.7 feet. The result is a dry weight of 638 kg 1.407 kg / 642.3 kg 1.416 kg rubber / hydrolastic suspension for the Elf and 618 kg 1.362 kg / 636.4 kg 1.403 kg for the Hornet. Front end treatment which includes each Marques traditional vertical design of grille hornets with a lighted icon "Wolseley", also contributed to a less utilitarian appearance. Cars larger-diameter chrome hubcaps than the Austin and Morris minis, and additional chrome accents, bumper overriders with veneer panels. Riley was the more expensive of the two cars. The name "Wolseley Hornet" was first used in the 1930-ies sedans, coupes, sports and racing cars, while the name "Elf" recalled the Riley Sprite and imp sports cars, and the 1930-ies, Riley named "imp" can not be used as Hillman has registered it. Full-width control panel was a differentiator between the elf and Hornet. This panel was the idea of Christopher Milner the sales Manager for Riley. As Riley elfs and hornets body was perfectly built at Fisher & Ludlow under their "Fisholow" brand. Plates in the engine compartment on the right side Fitch plate indicate this specialty. Very early mark I versions of both cars, e.g. press photo of 445MWL was no overriders on the bumpers and one piece front wing panel and wing in one piece, no outside seam below the niche panel, which was soon given up again, allegedly due to cost. Elf and hornets special bumper overriders first appeared in 1962. At the beginning of production of the brand is also a combination of leather and fabric, seat Elf R-A2S1-101 to FR2333, Hornet W-A2S1-101 to FW2105 whereas all later models had full leather seats. Models of the mark I was equipped with single leading Shoe brakes on the front.
Both the elf and the Hornet went through three engine options. Initially, they used the 848 CC 51.7 CU in 34 HP, 25 kW Engine Type 8WR one ТГ2 carb, replacing one ТГ2 carburetor 38 HP 28 kW version of the Cooper 998 CC 60.9 CU in power unit engine type 9WR in the mark II in 1963. This increased the top speed from 71 to 77 km / h 114 to 124 km / h. Therefore mark II cars also came with increased braking in the front drum brakes with two leading shoes to cope with the increased power. As mark I and mark II participate in a four-speed gearbox with three gear synchromesh, with a traction gear, and.to.a. "magic wand" type. Automatic transmission became available on the mark II in 1965 as an option. The mark III facelift of 1966 brought wind-up Windows and fresh-air fascia vents. Concealed door hinges were introduced two years earlier than had been seen in the main Mini. The gear selecting mechanism was updated to the rod type As seen on all later mini type cars. Automatic transmission was available on the mark III in 1967 again. Full-four synchromesh transmission was eventually introduced in 1968. 30.912 Riley elfs and Hornets 28.455 well built. Production of both models was discontinued in 1969.
Vehicle Identification – Serial Number Prefix Letter Code:
- Second prefix letter – engine type.
- Fifth prefix used to indicate a range of cars from standard right hand drive: left hand drive.
- The third prefix letter – body type: 2S – 2-door sedan.
- First capital letter – name: R-Riley, W-well.
- Fourth prefix – series of model: 1 – 1st series, 2 – 2nd row, 3 – 3rd series.
Code example: R-A2S1-154321
6.2. Options. Morris mini traveller and Austin mini countryman 1960-69. (Моррис мини путешественник и Остин мини земляк 1960-69)
These models were two-door estate cars with double "barn"-style rear doors. Both were built on little more than a body-on 84 in 2.1 m compared to 80.25 inch 2.038 m for the living room.
At the beginning of the Morris mini traveller and Austin mini countryman cars had an internal fuel tank is on the left side rear of the load. This can be identified by the filler neck on the left side of the car just below the rear window. In October 1961, the fuel tank was moved to the bottom of the car and the filler cap was moved to low down on the right side of the car – the same configuration that is already in use on the van.
With the start of production of both models had decorative, non-structural, Ash wood trim, rear, in the style of pre-war shooting brake. This gave the car a resemblance to the larger Morris minor traveller and spawned these machines are called woody. It is a popular misconception that the difference between the traveller and countryman with wooden trim. Was launched in export markets in April 1961, and for the domestic market in October 1962 all began as a traveller and a countryman without the wood trim, but the Woodie version remained more popular.
In October 1967, the MK2 version was launched with the same changes as in the saloon.
It was built about 108.000 Austin mini Countrymans and 99.000 Morris mini travellers. Variations of this model were also built in South Africa, the Innocenti in Italy and Industria de Montagem de Automoveis Portugal.
Mini traveller and countryman register was established in 2009 to help find and keep the rest of the mini traveller and countryman cars.
6.3. Options. Mini Van 1960-83. (Мини-Ван 1960-83)
Mini-van commercial van in English, delivery sedan valued at ¼ - ton load capacity. Built on the chassis of a traveler, but without side Windows, it proved popular in Britain of the 1960s years as a cheaper alternative to the car: it was classed as a commercial vehicle and as such carried no sales tax. A set of simple stamped steel slots served in place of a more costly chrome grille. The mini van was renamed the mini 95 in 1978, the number representing the gross vehicle weight from 0.95 tons. 521.494 was built.
6.4. Options. Mini Moka 1964-89. (Мини МОКа 1964-89)
Was built twin-engined 4-wheel drive SUV designed for the British army. Although the 4WD Moke could climb a 1:2 gradient, it lacked ground clearance for military use. The single-engined front wheel drive Moke enjoyed some popularity in civilian production. About 50.000 were made in total, from 1964 to 1968 in the UK, 1966 to 1982 in Australia and 1983 to 1989 in Portugal. In the Moke were sold in places such as Barbados and Macau where they were also used as police cars. "Moka" is archaic British slang for a donkey.
6.5. Options. Mini pickup 1961-83. (Мини-пикап 1961-83)
The truck is technically a coupe utility, by definition, 3.4 ft 11 in Overall length m was built on the platform mini-van with an open top rear of the Luggage compartment and tailgate. The factory specified the weight to less than 1500 kg 680 kg with a full 6 gallon / 27 litre, 7.2 US Gal tank of fuel.
As in the case of van, pick-up had stamped metal slots for airflow into the engine compartment. The pickup was basic, although the factory brochure described in "fully equipped mini pick-up is also available which includes a recirculatory heater". Passenger side sun visor, seat belts, laminated windscreen, tilt tubes and cover also available for an additional fee. As the van, the pickup was renamed as the mini 95 in 1978.
Was built a total of 58.179 mini pickup model.
6.6. Options. Morris Mini to March 1969 – August 1971, Australia only. (Моррис Mini в марте 1969 – август 1971, Австралия только)
Built in the Australian British motor Corporation factory in zetland NSW using 80% local content, the Morris Mini K was advertised as the "great leap forward". Mini To stand on a kangaroo was a 1098 CC engine and was the last round-nose model to be produced in Australia, originally priced at$1780. The mini K was offered in 2-door sedan and 2-door van body styles. It was distinctive in that the wind-up Windows and swivelling quarterlight in MK.I-style externally hinged doors. A small round sticker with a kangaroo logo was placed on the triangular panel between the door and the front seam of the body. "Kangaroo" name was coined allegedly because he argued that kangaroos can go all day without drinking, which advertisers use to emphasize the modest fuel consumption and possibly more fuel tank.
7. Mini Cooper and Cooper s: 1961-1971, 1990-2000. (Мини Купер и Купер с: 1961-1971, 1990-2000)
Issigonis friend John Cooper, owner of Cooper car company and designer and constructor of Formula One, saw the potential of the Mini for competition. Issigonis was initially reluctant to see the mini in the role of a performance car but after John Cooper appealed to BMC management the two men collaborated to create the mini Cooper. The Austin Mini Cooper and Morris Mini Cooper debuted in September 1961.
In 848 CC 51.7 CU in engine from the Morris mini-minor was given a larger move to increase capacity to 997 CC 60.8 CU in increasing power from 34 to 55 HP from 25 to 41 kW. The car featured in the race-tuned engine, twin SU carburettors, a closer-ratio gearbox and front disc brakes, uncommon at the time in a small car. One thousand units of this version were made at the request of management, and is designed to meet the homologation rules of group 2 Rally racing. 997-CC engine was replaced by a shorter stroke 998 CC unit in 1964. In 1962, Rhodesian John Love became the first non-British rider to win the British saloon car driving Mini Cooper.
A more powerful Mini Cooper, dubbed the "S" was developed in tandem and released in 1963. With the 1071 engine with a 70.61 mm bore and nitrided steel crankshaft and strengthened bottom end to allow further tuning, and more power brakes disc, 4.030 Cooper s cars were produced and sold until the model was updated in August 1964. Cooper also produced two models specifically for circuit racing in the framework of 1.000 CC and under of 1.300 CC classes respectively, is estimated at 970 59 CC CU CC CU 77.8 1.275 V, both had a 70.61 mm 2.780 in bore and was provided to the population. The smaller-engine model was not well received, and was built when the model was discontinued in 1965, only 963. At 1.275 models CC Cooper s continued in production until 1971.
Selling Mini Cooper were as follows: is 64.000 mark I Coopers with 997 CC or 998 CC engines, 19.000 mark Cooper S with 970 CC, or CC 1.071 1.275 CC engine, the 16.000 mark II Coopers with 998 CC engines, 6.300 mark II Cooper S with a 1.275 CC engine. No mark III Coopers and just 1.570 mark III Cooper S.
In 1971, the Mini Cooper design was licensed in Italy by Innocenti and in 1973 to Spain by Authi Automoviles de Turismo in Hispano-Ingleses, which began to produce Mini Cooper 1300 Innocenti and Authi Mini Cooper 1300, respectively. The Cooper name was discontinued from the mini-series the UK at this time.
New mini Cooper named the RSP Rover special products was for a short time resumed in 1990-91, with a slightly lower performance than the 1960s Cooper years. This proved popular and a new Cooper-marked mini went into full power at the end of 1991. To meet the emission standards of the Coopers from 1992 was installed a fuel-injected version of the engine 1.275 CC, and in 1997 a multi-point fuel injected engine was introduced, along with the front of the radiator and various security enhancements. "I love my Mini Cooper," said Madonna in 2003. "I was too scared to drive a big car in London".
8. Mini Clubman and 1275 GT: 1969-1980. (Мини Clubman и 1275 ГТ: 1969-1980)
In 1969, in the ownership of British Leyland, the mini was given a facelift stylist Roy Haynes, who has previously worked at Ford. The restyled version was called the Mini Clubman, it has a squarer appearance to the front of the car, using the same indicator / sidelight Assembly as the Austin Maxi. In the mini Clubman was intended to replace the elite Riley and the ancient versions. The new model, called the 1275 GT, which was scheduled as replacement for the 998 CC Mini Cooper 1.275 CC Mini Cooper s continues in parallel with the 1275 GT for two years until 1971. The property of the club replaced the countryman and traveller. The original "round-front" design remained in production alongside the Clubman and 1275 GT.
Production of the Clubman and 1275 GT came to a slow start because the cars incorporated "lots of production changes" including the relocation of instrument manufacturers from the Cowley plant in the Longbridge plant: very few cars were handed over to customers until the early 1970-ies.
Early domestic market Clubmans were still delivered on cross-ply tyres despite the fact that by the 1970s, Shin became the norm for cars of the main competitors. By 1973 new Minis were, by default, come with radial tyres, though cross plies can be specified by special order, giving British buyers a price saving of £8.
In 1275 GT is often incorrectly referred to as "mini Clubman 1275 GT in". The official name was always just the "mini 1275 GT", and this was a separate, individual models from the club although it shared the same frontal treatment as the mini Clubman, it was launched at the same time.
In 1971 1.275 CC Mini Cooper s was discontinued in the UK, leaving the mini 1275 GT as the only sporting mini on sale for the rest of the decade. Innocenti in Italy, however, continued to do her own version of the Mini Cooper for some time. While the British built 1275 GT was not as quick as a 1275 Mini Cooper s, it was cheaper to buy, run and insure. He was the first Mini to be fitted with a tachometer. It also featured in the standard-fit close-ratio gearbox, and initially had a 10 inch 25.4 cm Rostyle wheel covering 7.5 inch 19.05 cm Cooper S type disc brakes and boot Board, and both were filmed in 1974. Performance of the 1275GT was lively for the time of reaching 0-60 mph 97 km / h in 12.9 seconds, and the excellent midrange torque offered a 30-50 km / h in 48-80 km / h in top gear of only nine seconds. The bluff front, however, meant that the model struggled to reach 90 km / h 140 km / h.
During the 1970-ies, British Leyland continued to produce the classic 1959 "round-front" design, alongside the new Clubman and 1275 GT models. Long nose Clubman and 1275 GT in better crash safety, were better trained and better under the hood to open, but they were more expensive and aerodynamically inferior to the original 1959 design. Mini Clubman and 1275 GT was replaced in 1980, the new hatchback Austin metro, while production of the original "round-front" mini design continued for another 20 years. At the end of Clubman and 1275 GT production 275.583 salons of the club, 197.606 estates and 110.673 Clubman 1275 GTS were made.
8.1. Mini Clubman and 1275 GT: 1969-1980. Australia. (Австралия)
For the Australian market, all firmware, including the van gained the Clubman front in 1971 although the car was still basically a MK I behind the counter. Thus, the Australian became only the van rent a van produced anywhere in the world. From mid-1971 to end of 1972, a Clubman GT version of the saloon was produced. It is essentially a Cooper s hatchback, equipped with the same 7.5-inch 190 mm disc brake, two fuel tanks, and twin-carb Cooper engine with 1.275. Australian salons is the fastest in the world was sold under the name of Morris mini Clubman in when introduced in August 1971, and as the Leyland mini, without the name of the club since February 1973.
To end mini production in Australia, a limited edition runout model was produced − in 1275LS. Installed pollution control 1.275 CC engine sourced from Europe, BOS was one 1.5 inch 38 mm carburettor and 8.4-inch 210 mm disc brakes. Production of this model commenced in July 1978 and concluded in October 1978 with an approximate total of 810 vehicles produced.
9. End of production. (Окончание производства)
Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the British market received numerous "special editions" of the Mini which shifted the car from a mass-market item into a fashionable icon. It is this image that perhaps helped the mini become such an asset for BMW, which later bought the remnants of BMC as the Rover group. He was even more popular in Japan, which took the lions share of the 40.000 Minis produced annually in the early 1990-ies. He was seen there as a retro-cool icon, and inspired many imitators. Mini ERA Turbo was particularly popular with Japanese buyers.
In 1994, under Bernd Pischetsrieder, a first cousin once removed of Issigonis, BMW took control of Rover group, which included the mini, side airbags in accordance with the European legislation.
By March 2000, the Rover continued to suffer huge losses and BMW decided to sell a large part of the company. The sale was completed in may of this year. MG and Rover went to Phoenix, a new British consortium, land Rover was sold to Ford. BMW retained the mini name and the planned new model, granting Rover temporary rights to the brand and allowing it to produce and sell the runout model of the old mini. By April 2000, the range consisted of four versions: the mini classic seven, Mini classic Cooper, Mini classic Cooper sport and foreign markets: mini Knightsbridge. Last mini, a red Cooper sport, was built on 4 October 2000 and presented to the British motor industry heritage trust in December of the same year. A total of 5.387.862 vehicles were produced about 1.6 million of which were sold in the UK, although most of them were sold for at least 20 years before Minis of death, which means that the majority of those sold were written down to the end of the original minis production life.
After the last of the mini production had been sold, the mini name is passed to the possession of BMW. Mini-Hatch, the new model made by BMW, technically unrelated to the old car but retains the classic transverse four cylinder, front-wheel drive configuration and "bulldog" stance of the original.
The last mini to leave the Longbridge plant did in 2012, when a 1970s 1275GT years, which was used by staff to travel around the car plant was recovered from the disused tunnels under the plant. The car was damaged by a storage container falling on it and was left without an engine or gearbox for around 30 years before being recovered during work to fill the tunnels. This car was sold at auction in July 2013 for $ 1400.
10. Time. (Время)
- 1962: "De Luxe" and "super" designations discontinued. "Super De Luxe" designation introduced. Now change the instrument panel included an oil pressure and water temperature sensors.
- August 1959: introduction of the Austin seven, Morris mini-Minor and Morris mini-minor DL 2-door saloons, all with transversely mounted 848 CC engine and 4-speed manual transmission.
- October 2000: mini production ends.
- March 1962: PVC seat covers replaced cloth upholstery on entry-level model "mini".
- October 1961: introduction of the Riley Elf and well Hornet variants.
- 1964: introduction of the mini Moka.
- 1961: introduction of the Austin seven super and Morris mini-minor super 2-door sedans.
- 1980: the mini becomes the Austin mini.
- March 1969: launch of the Morris Mini K an Australian model manufactured in the Australian British motor Corporation factory in zetland NSW using 80% local content.
- August 1969: the Riley Elf and well Hornet variants discontinued.
- January 1962: all former Austin seven models now officially called Austin mini.
- March 1963: introduction of the Austin Mini Cooper 1071 S and Morris Mini Cooper 1071 S. 2-door saloons, both with larger 1071 CC 70 BHP 52 kW engine.
- October 1969: separate Austin and Morris hopefuls now merged into mini 850 / mini 1000 passes. Range reduced to: 850, 1000, the fastest in the world, Cooper s and 1275 GT 2-door sedan and hatchback 3-door wagon. Optional automatic transmission available on all except 1275 GT.
- 1960: introduction of the Austin seven Countryman and Morris mini-minor traveller 3-door estates, both with 848 CC engine from the model interior. 116.667 cars built in the first full year of production.
- April 1964: introduction of the Austin and Morris Mini-Cooper 998, Mini-Cooper 970 S and Mini-Cooper 1275 S. 1275 model 1275 CC engine 76 HP 57 kW. Automatic transmission is available as an option for the 998 CC Austin Mini-Cooper 998 and 1275 S. previous Mini-Cooper 997 and 1071 models for.
- October 1967: a Stamp series 2 launched with facelift and upgraded equipment. Austin mini range as follows: 850, 1000, Cooper 998 and Cooper 1275 s 2 -, four -, and 1000 countryman 3-door estate. Mini Morris range as follows: 850 SDL, 1000 SDL, Cooper 998 and Cooper 1275 s 2-door saloons and 1000 traveller 3-door estate. Optional automatic transmission available on all models except 850 Austin and Morris mini 1000 SDL saloon.
- 1988: mini becomes a marque in its own right, although the V5 documents often show "Rover" as a privateer, it is incorrect.
- October 1965: automatic transmission now available as an option on standard Austin / Morris mini and Morris mini SDL.
- 1961: introduction of the Austin Mini Cooper and Morris Mini Cooper 2-door sedan, with a larger 997 CC 55 BHP 41 kW engine.
- September 1968: manual four-speed box with synchromesh on all four forward ratios introduced.
- 1965: Mini Cooper 970 S. discontinued.
11. Limited edition. (Ограниченным тиражом)
From mark IV and further, many special limited editions of the mini were offered. This includes models that were created in honor of racing victories or to celebrate an anniversary on the mini brand. Limited editions usually include a unique combination of interior and exterior trim and special decals. Examples include mini 1100 special, mini 1000 special HL, mini Rio, mini Mayfair, mini Park lane, Mini Cooper RSP, mini flame, mini red hot, mini black, mini racing, mini thirty 30 that 3000 examples were produced in 2000 red-1000 in Black and the mini Monza. There is also a version inspired by the Italian job 1969 film famous for having a trio of Minis Floyd car chase.
12. Concepts and unproduced prototypes. (Понятия и непроизведенных прототипы)
From 1967 to 1979, Issigonis had been designing a replacement for the MINI in the form of an experimental model called the 9X. He was bigger and more powerful than the Mini, but due to politicking inside British Leyland, which was formed by the merger of the cubes parent company British Motor holdings and Leyland Motor Corporation, the car did not reach production.
A series of prototypes for vehicles based on the Mini but which never saw production held and sometimes displayed at the British Museum the heritage motor Centre in Gaydon, Warwickshire. These include Twini, Moka upgraded all-wheel drive with two engines - one front and one rear, the Austin ANT, a second attempt to produce a four-wheel drive vehicle, this time using a transfer case and two-seater convertible mg edition of the mini, cancelled due to it being perceived as competition for the mg Midget.
In 1992 a project was initiated with regard to possible improvements in the mini. Company Kuzminki "mini" plus K-series engine, it included a redesigned dashboard, a two-piece rear door or tailgate instead of a boot, fold down rear seats, Hydragas suspension and a 3-cylinder version of the K-series engine with 5-speed transmission. However, the project was cancelled by management within Rover, who decided that the cost of technical changes, and ensure compliance with modern standards of crash tests was too large in terms of production, what can we expect the updated mini.
In 1995, the idea to update the mini have surfaced again, but this time with the leadership of the BMW. As part of the process of deciding how to replace the mini, a vehicle representing what the current mini could have become if it had been developed in the history of its production, was put into operation. The result Kuzminki-II, designed to house the 1.4 l MPI K-series engine with an extensive reorganization within, but without original tailgate Minkis. The car had to be extended by 50mm and lengthened by 50mm to accommodate the new engine and gearbox, suspension, Hydragas and panel, Rover 100. In the Kuzminki-II was used for Hydragas development work, this suspension being considered at the time for the R59 project, later to become the mini hatch.
13. Set of machines and settings. (Комплект машин и установок)
The cheapness and availability of used Minis make it a candidate for replacement of the body. There are over 120 mini-package cars from various small companies and individual enthusiasts.
14. Motorsport. (Мотоспорт)
BMK acted competition Department in Abingdon, Oxfordshire, under the control of Stuart Turner, who built a specially prepared Minis are mainly based on Cooper and Cooper S to compete in international rally and other Motorsport. This Department plays a key role in ensuring Minis huge success in Motorsport throughout the 1960-ies, in particular, winning the Rally Monte Carlo in 1964, 1965 and 1967 at the Rally 1000 Lakes in 1965, 1966 and 1967, and dominating all of the first 9 positions in the 1966 Gallagher 500 at Bathurst.
The car also won the 1961, 1962, 1969, 1978 and 1979 British saloon championship season as well as the British rally championship in 1962, 1963 and 1970, the European rally championship in 1965 and 1966, and won the Finnish rally championship in 1965 and 1966. Minis also received in 1965 Lowood 4 hour endurance race, and in the final of the Finnish Grand Prix in 1963. On the Cooper s also had some success in the European touring car championship, winning in 1964 and 1968 GUIA race of Macau 1-2-3 finish in 1965 1-2 finish in 1970 and winning in 1972 and in the Australian touring car championship, winning his class In 1962, 1963, 1964, 1966, 1967 and 1968. In the future the name was in the 1971 sun-7 Chesterfield series. Mini and won class at the 1963 Armstrong 500, to repeat this feat every year until 1969, and with class wins in 1964, 1965 and 1971 Sandown 250, and six hours of Le Mans in 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970 and 1972, and in 1971 Phillip island 500K. The car also won the Welsh sports and saloon car championship in 1998. Mini Leyland took 4th place in the under-2 litres in 1966, 1967 and 1969 TRANS-Am seasons, improved to 3rd in 1970.
Mini Cooper s won the Rally Monte Carlo in 1964, 1965 and 1967. Minis initially won the first, second and third in the 1966 rally, but were disqualified after a controversial decision judges. The disqualification related to the use of a variable adjustment of the resistance of the dimming circuit in place of dual-filament lamp. Fourth placed Roger Clark "Ford Cortina" was disqualified for the same reason, along with six other cars. The fifth car past the finish line, a citroën DS, a model that won the race earlier, was awarded first place – DS had similar lights, but it was a standard production equipment on the vehicle in accordance with the letter of the rules. The driver of the citroën, Pauli Toivonen, had a feeling he really didnt "win" the rally. BMC probably received more publicity from the disqualification than they would have received from winning.
In rally-cross, mini finished on the podium in the first race at Lydden Hill race in February 1967, winning races in the European championship rally cross FIA in 1974 and 1975. Cars competed in the championship final of the Australian cross-country rally 1979.
In the Se7ens is the UKS longest to take the championship automobile races, was introduced in 1966. As of 2014, classic Minis continues to be raced to make races in the UK, Europe and Asia, in the classic events such as the meeting of the members of the dawn. In 2012 broke the mini the land speed record. Mini was used to set a record at the Chateau impney hill.
15. Awards. (Награды)
Mini has won many awards over the years, including second place in 1999s "global" car was century, second only to the model T Ford. In the same competition, run by the prestigious Global Fund technical elections, a was selected as the "European car of the century". Mass motorsports mini received the editors Choice award in 2002. MINI has also received awards for "Car of the century" by Autocar magazine in 1995 and "number one classic car of all time the" journal of classic and sports car 1996.
In the end 5.3 million Minis were sold, making it the most popular British car ever made.
16. Sale. (Продажа)
At its peak, the mini was a strong seller in most countries where it was sold, with the United Kingdom inevitably receiving the most volume. In the 1.000.000-th Mini rolled off the Assembly line in 1965, with of 2.000 th in 1969. In the 3.000 th Mini came off the Assembly line in 1972, with the 4.000.000 th in 1976.
He dominated the mini-car market until the arrival of the Hillman IMP in 1963. He surpassed imp. Competition arrived with the more modern and practical Opel Chevrolet 1975, but the mini continued to sell well until its "replacement" - the metro - arrived in 1980. By this time the design of the Minis lost a lot more modern and practical vehicles.
Although metro will not replace the mini, production figures for the mini dipped during the 1980s years, and interest in the design was not revived until the restoration of the Mini Cooper in 1990. It helped the sales of the mini through the 1990s to the end of production on 4 October 2000.
A total of 1.581.887 Minis were sold in Britain after its launch in 1959. Latest New needs to be registered was sold in 2004, approximately four years after the end of production.
The highest price ever paid for a mini was at Bonhams auction in 2007, when the rally-prepared mini-DJB 93B sold for £100.500 $196.980.
16.1. Sale. The United States and Canada. (США и Канада)
Between 1960 and 1967, BMC exported approximately 10.000 left-hand drive BMC Minis to the United States. Sales were discontinued when there was strict Federal safety standards, introduced in 1968 and the advent of larger and more profitable Austin America. Mini sales fell in the 1967 calendar year and the us importer was expecting the forthcoming Austin America to find a wider market. America was also withdrawn in 1972 due to low sales and the introduction of bumper height standards. Mini sales in Canada until 1980. Options truck as with their counterparts in the UK remains badged as "mini" no distinction between Austin and Morris, and in 1976 with the capture of the British Leyland became British Leyland Mini with two. Leyland Minis are also subject to more stringent state regulation, with high sides, large turn signal lights, alarms and lighting for safety belts, and installation of pumps of air pollution, which requires a specially designed heatsink.
Today the us government exempts cars older than 25 years from all import laws, so the older kids can be freely imported. The canadian government has a similar rule applies after 15 years.
17. Safety performance. (Показатели безопасности)
Issigonis designed the mini with an emphasis on active safety. Asked about the crash worthiness of the mini he said "I make cars with such good brakes, such good steering, that if people get into an accident of his own fault" and "I dont design my cars to have accidents".
In July 1965 BMC announced that following "comments by safety experts" about the foreign Minis doorhandles, they will be modified on new cars so that the gap between the handle and the door panel would be effectively closed.
Nicholas Faith States in his book that Murray Mackay, one of the UKS leading automotive crash and safety researchers, critically 1967 Minis passive safety features, including the protruding filler cap, the door latch, and the vulnerability of the passenger space to engine intrusion.
The mini was withdrawn from the U.S. market because it could not meet the 1968 U.S. safety regulations and emission standards, and although often updated, not sufficiently to meet the requirements of the United States. It continued to be sold in Canada until 1980.
Mini was modified during its production to improve its safety. In 1974 a prototype mini experimental safety vehicle was built the mini Clubman SRV4 in. It showed more crumple zone, a "pedestrian" front-end, run-flat tyres, strengthened sills, extra internal padding and recessed door handles, the latter of which has been used previously in the Australian-built Minis due to local laws. Jack Daniels, one of the original Issigonis team, as indicated, are working on further safety improvements for the Mini when he retired in 1977. Several times it was felt that safety regulations would stop mini production. Improving safety in 1996, with the introduction of airbags and side bars. The mini, challenged by increasingly demanding European safety standards and environmental pollution, was planned by British aerospace to be taken out of production in 1996, but BMW chose to invest to keep the mini legal until the launch of the new model.
In January 2007? the magazine listed the mini city in its "ten worst cars for safety since 1983" list, alongside other economical, lightweight, economical cars like the Hyundai pony 1.2 l, Fiat Panda 900 super, Suzuki Alto GL, Daihatsu Domino, citroën AX 11 re, Yugo 45 and 55, Peugeot 205 GL, and the Citroen 2CV6.
Department of transport UK statistics publication, presenting estimates of the risk of driver injury in two car injury collisions, based on reported road accident data, estimated that the 1990-2000 Mini was one of the two small cars other Hyundai of the alphabet, which, according to estimates, 84% of drivers likely to be injured, presented the greatest danger of injury to the driver, the average risk for the small car category was 76%.
18. The 50-year anniversary. (50-летний юбилей)
Several key events marked the 50th anniversary of Mini in 2009. 13 Jan 2009 Royal mail has released a limited series of stamps entitled "British design classics", with the original, egg-shell blue, MK1 mini, Registration XAA 274. On 17 may, a world record parade 1.450 Minis are gathered at the Crystal Palace within London in the run. Next week, the 10.000 Minis and 25.000 people attended the festival at the Silverstone racetrack on the border of Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire.
Between 7 and 10 August 2009 approximately 4000 Minis from around the world gathered at Longbridge in Birmingham to celebrate 50-year anniversary. On 26 August 2009, smallcarBIGCITY, launched in London sightseeing tours from the capital to the Park restored mini Coopers.
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