★ Audi A2
Audi A2 is a compact MPV-styled supermini car, with a five-door hatchback body style and four or five seats produced by the German manufacturer Audi from November 1999 to August 2005. Based on the concept car Audi al 2 first shown at the Frankfurt motor show in 1997, A2 is notable for the fact that made of aluminum, which combined with efficient engines, has made it a very economical car on fuel.
Packages available in Germany prepayment, style, high-tech, and later line, whereas in the United Kingdom, the A2 was available in various configurations, including: all standard SE for special equipment, Sport, special edition, 2005.
1. History. (История)
The A2 was produced at Audis "aluminium" Neckarsulm plant in Germany, a special purpose-built line for it. It was the first five-door vehicle on sale in Europe with an average fuel consumption less than 3 liters per 100 kilometers 94.2 mpg ‑IMP, 78.4 mpg and the United States, although these figures only in the case of the special "3L" version with a diesel engine, automatic transmission, stop-start system, less power and narrower tyres. Due to its construction, the average A2 weighs 830 kg. А2с the Last to be produced was built in August 2005.
2. Styling. (Стайлинг)
The A2 was a surprise when it debuted only two years after the initial studies of al-2. Many initial reviews, including those from what car? and Autocar in the UK commented on the design.
Autocars initial drive verdict. (Первоначальный вердикт автомобилю езды)
"The best thing about A2 is that it is not just a design exercise. Yes, this is a great car to see, sit and touch, but also a Riot to drive."
Avant-garde style did not please some potential customers. Audi was reported to be disappointed with the level of sales. The final product was only 176.377 units, in comparison with the rival Mercedes-Mercedes A-class sales of 1 million people.
3. Design, engineering and construction. (Дизайн, проектирование и строительство)
The main theme in the design and engineering A2 summarized Audi then in Europe, the product Manager in an interview after the car won a design award in 2001 to "create a small Audi, not a cheap Audi", and the creative brief is said to have been "transport four people from Stuttgart to Milan on a single tank of gasoline."
A2 built a significant amount of aluminum and aluminum alloy, making it weigh significantly less than cars of similar size. Its reduced weight helps it to use much less fuel than vehicles using traditional steel monocoques. Under certain circumstances, consumption for the 1.2 TDI model can be a bit more than 2 liters per 100 kilometers 140 mpg ‑IMP, 120 mpg ‑US. This version of the Audi A2 won the "Nordic Eco run" race fuel savings in 2003, with a consumption of 2.62 l / 100 km 107.8 mpg ‑IMP, 89.8 mpg ‑US. Even the normal versions with petrol engines are capable of 5 l / 100 km 56.5 mpg ‑IMP, 47.0 mpg ‑US. The A2 was also notable for being the first Audi model since the 1970s years, the Audi 50 86 Type and Audi 100 type 43 will not be offered with all-wheel drive option. The A2 has coefficient of drag of 0.25 and 0.29, depending on the specific version.
A2 still uses a modern Unibody design, with significant elements of the principle of the space frame and put on the Audi as the Audi space frame design. External body panels virtually no structural function – similarities exist with the original Renault Espace – and the space frame bears the forces acting on the car. The frame uses casts and extrusions which are laser welded together to make the space frame. Improvements in shell stability, durability and rigidity, less weight and more internal space are the results of his work. "A2, on the other hand, was designed as an aluminum car and frame have been optimized through the consolidation of parts using large, cost-effective castings instead of aluminum stampings".
Unfortunately, the cost of working with aluminum, especially small-scale production, means that the A2 was more expensive than other cars in its segment, competing with the A-class and losing. A large part of the high cost of production due to so many parts are not "off the shelf" and specifically optimized for the A2. With the magazine AutoBild in 2003: "the A2 is not one of the models with the highest return on investment." The same article quotes the sales figures for 2002 in Germany from 20.000 80.000 A-class ".a lot of money for a car that is only 3.8 m in length."
Audi was the first manufacturer to try to incorporate lightweight building concepts using aluminium and associated alloys into a "mass market" car. Previous efforts at using the Audi space frame were limited, and more expensive Audi A8. As a guide for the respective masses, the entire body weighs so little that two people can easily lift it up and the side panel over the doors including the A - and D-pillars weighs about 2 kg 4 lbs. The 2002 model A2 with standard equipment has a mass of 895 kg 1.973 LB.
A2 thus, can be considered a trailblazer for various newer aluminium-based vehicles, such as the second generation Audi A8, Audi TT, and Jaguars recent X350 Jaguar e-XJ and 2006 Jaguar XK.
Part of the A2 which are still made of steel include the bulkhead behind the front bumper from the "slam" panel, a wiper arm, standard A2 suspension components 3l, which are often made of aluminum alloy, the rear brake drums and the exhaust system.
3.1. Design, engineering and construction. Interior. (Интерьер)
The A2 has a large interior space for the exterior dimensions, including a boot of 390 litres 13.8 cubic feet of space when the rear seats are in place. It is much more than a camera store the following models of Audi a series, Audi A3. Thanks to the "sandwich"construction, similar again to the Renault Espace or the Mercedes A-class, the bottom and the top and bottom. The space in the middle used for various components such as the fuel tank and the engine electronics. Rear passengers also benefit, since their the foot space reaches into this sandwich space, creating a comfortable Seating position even for tall rear seat passengers. It is the opposite of comfort available on the rear bench of A class. To improve the weight distribution of the car, his battery is in the trunk, under the floor.
Interior А2с was very prestigious in comparison to other supermini. In the UK and Europe, there are several options of material, the seat and color, included in the standard Cirrus cloth, with Matrix cloth, optional Alcantara / leather or full pearl Nappa leather seat upholstery. Sport models received sport seats with electrically adjustable lumbar support as standard in jacquard satin cloth. The seat materials were available in a choice of red, blue, beige "Jive" or "twist", code 4QC, light grey Platina, code EC3, dark gray "swing", 24C or the black "soul", 6pcs. Individual options were also available, such as bright yellow, red or blue seats, steering wheels, gear lever, handbrake lever and door armrests. Color.the storm model was introduced in 2003 brought bright colors, both outside and inside of the A2, including the "papaya" orange. Soft materials are used on the doors and contact areas in the centre console, although they tend to wear over time, especially in the keys climate control.
Quattro GmbH – as Audi exclusive – were prepared to adjust the A2 in the same ways as any other Audi. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the number of "individual" painted cars is extremely small, among the several thousand German A2 owners represented in the forum a2-freun.de was noted to have only two separate machines. Available colors corresponds to the extended Volkswagen group palette at the time - including any Volkswagen group colour and many others too - but the option was expensive, about €2000. Set of 10 А2с, is said to have been created in Almond beige with orange color.storm interiors as dealer demonstrators and at least two of them were seen on the market in the past. It is impossible to document the existence of these funds, not least due to the lack of cooperation from the German authorities in terms of freely available, reliable, colour information, and that used-car sites are not archived.
In the A2 had many innovative ideas, such as the area of the storage system, which was a box that slotted in the rear passengers footwell, rear Cup holder, which is unbuckled, and the double false floor of the trunk where they could be hidden from thieves or where the space Saver spare wheel could be stored. Warning triangle and first aid kit are stored directly to the left of the trunk opening. The Toolkit was stored, depending on equipment, next to the battery. If the space is needed for the navigation system and / or subwoofer of the Bose, but was moved to the sandwich compartment in front of the right front drivers seat on cars UK, passenger LHD ones. Headrests do not need to remove the rear seats when they are folded, and four-seater can have the rear seats removed in seconds. Seat belts on the rear seats there is a clip on the upper rear of the bar, so if the seats folded and return to the normal position, the belts are not tangled. More examples of energy saving can be found in the glove box light turns on only when the light is turned on and the freewheel pulley on the alternator belt, i.e. the generator will be used only when necessary. The climate compressor is also turned off when the ambient temperature falls below 5 °C. the Econ function of the climate control, where there is also turns off the auxiliary heater or compressor, depending on temperature. This function does not affect the availability of fuel or electrical auxiliary heating.
3.2. Design, engineering and construction. Service Hatch Serviceklappe. (Служба Люк Serviceklappe)
The front of the car included an unusual design feature called "Serviceklappe" in German – this translates to "service hatch" or "panels". On early cars, it was a glossy black panel at the lower edge of the hood where the grille is normally located. Behind it are the filling points for oil and screen wash fluid and the probe. Thanks to these features, the hood need not often raised.
The hood was widely rumored, sealed – car and driver wrote ".a feature of the A2 that may foretell the future: the sealed hood". Actually, the hood is easily removable, held in place by two twist-lock catches. Hood, weighing 8 kg, then comes from the car, unlike conventional hinged folding mechanism on most other cars. The service hatch, hood you dont have to remove to access the engine.
4. Facelift and additional models. (Подтяжка лица и дополнительные модели)
The service hatch is the most obvious indicator of the age of any particular A2. It was replaced by a matte black "color.storm" colour schemes, and for model year 2004 it acquired fake grille slats. However, it can be easily changed, so it should not be considered as a reliable indicator of age. Very little else was changed externally during the life of the car. Colors and designs of the wheels was slightly modified throughout the production cycle. The only external indicator of the age of the car wiper. Very early models have a traditional blade, but starting with the 2002 model year, new cars have a "flexible" version of "brush Aerotwin" from Bosch, model 760.
4.1. Facelift and additional models. 2000-2001
- February 2000: introduction of the A2 with 75 HP 55 kW 74 HP gasoline.
- September 2000: introduction 75 HP 55 kW 74 HP diesel.
- June 2001: introduction of the 1.2 TDI engine in 3l on the European mainland market.
4.2. Facelift and additional models. 2002-2003
- May 2002: the use of 42л the gas tank in all rooms 3l version. 3l available with standard 21L tank or 34l tank, allowing a theoretical 1100 km distance.
- CAN-bus is used for the OBD systems as required by EU rules.
- Aluminium trim pack becomes standard equipment in the UK.
- June 2002: 1.6 FSI engine introduced with the big gas tank 42л and reconstructed rear spoiler higher position, larger size to increase stability at high speeds. Not s-line FSIS shown tunable soft suspension tuning due to many complaints of harsh ride of other models.
- Diesel engines used after September 2003, engine code BHC to comply to Euro4 exhaust emissions, again as a result of the legislation.
- Spare tire and repair kit tire "delete" is paid for additional equipment in the UK.
- Diesel engine А2с after may 2002 no longer have a pre-heater, operating on diesel fuel, but a powerful internal electrical heating element.
- Brush Aerotwin wiper. (Щетки Aerotwin щетка стеклоочистителя)
- The first color.the storm in Misano red, Imola yellow and sprint blue has become available. They brought flowers, which were previously only available on S and RS models or an exclusive option Audi standard color scale.
4.3. Facelift and additional models. 2003-2004
- FSI and 90 HP 66 kW, 89 HP Engines TDI gradually to the end of 2004 / early 2005.
- September / October 2003: availability of 90 HP 66 kW, 89 HP TDI. Now the grille with the slats, but still firm, new matrix cloth replaces both satellite and jacquard-satin cloth, yellow leather no longer available, additional external colours Available including Akoya silver and Mauritius Blue, new wheel designs became available.
- The use of the system MK60 ESP / ABS.
- Advanced color.storm colour options, including papaya orange, and later Avus silver.
4.4. Facelift and additional models. Two thousand five. (Две тысячи пять)
- Manufacture of A2 stopped at the Volkswagen / Audi group head Bernd Pischetsrieder.
- Special edition CD player and control models of the climate are represented on the markets of great Britain, at this time, no other models were available in the UK.
- Audi has lost approximately £4.000 on every A2 they sold and only made money on cars with optional equipment. Continued production of the model was reviewed by the Board of Directors.
5. Special version. (Специальная версия)
Audi also has a version of A2 at the Neckarsulm plant, which was converted into a pickup truck trainees – the "A2 Caddy". This was on public show for the first time at the A2-club of Germanys annual meeting in Amberg, Germany, in August 2005. Photos from the event are available on the German website A2-freun.de the link is below.
Audi also released the online version in Germany in late 2002, with 17" 9-spoke "RS4" style wheels were standard 15", front sports seats with great lateral support and lumbar support, half leather seat coverings with pearl Nappa leather and sprint cloth, leather handbrake handle shift lever in perforated leather and 3-spoke steering wheel and 10 mm lowered sports suspension. In addition, roof lining, dashboard and carpets were black, tool Titanium-color and S-line sign was added to the rear door. The driver information system and illuminated vanity mirrors for driver and passenger completed the package
In the UK, for the latest Audi А2с since the beginning of 2005 to June 2005 were badged as special edition models with reduced price tag, digital climate control and the second concert radio with CD player. They were the only models available in the UK at this time and were available with either the 1.4 petrol or 1.4 TDI engines. This special edition gave the A2 a final sales increase in the UK.
5.1. Special version. Lekker / dBm electric version. (Леккер / дБм электрическая версия)
In October 2010, completed the A2 converted to electric power Lekker Energie and dBm energy early in the morning, 600 km 370 Mi drive from Munich to Berlin without recharging. Upon arrival, Rainer bruederle, the economy Minister of Germany, called the Test drive a "world record".
The car was said to have 18% of their charge on arrival in Berlin and the average speed was reported as 90 km / h 56 miles per hour. In "Kolibri" battery used in a design so compact that the car retains four seats and a trunk. The production version will be possible. "Technology can be implemented today. It is up to industry to use this potential," commented Mirko Hannemann, the head of dBm.
6. The remaining numbers in UK and Germany. (Оставшиеся цифры в Великобритании и Германии)
The number of remaining А2с decreases over time. Aluminium chassis is frequently written off by insurers due to the relative lack of "aluminium specialists" – for example in Scotland and the training and experience necessary to repair the sink. Welding is frequently required and aluminium is more difficult than welding steel, due to the lack of color change when heated, which acts as a guide for temperature in steel welding. In addition, usually welded with Tig welding, which is a higher skill than MIG welding, which is commonly used with steel.
Other repair specialties are subject to denial on the part of Audi both in the UK and Germany, especially when dealing with open sky. Some dealers, such as the mentioned Autohaus Rinner in bad Tolz in West Germany, specializiruetsya for roof repair and replacement.
In BAFS "Kraftfahrtbundesamt" released numbers on request and after payment to the German A2 club which indicate that around 70.000 А2с was in Germany at the end of November 2010. Of those, less than 5.000 are 1.6 FSIS. This information was released on the condition that it is not for publication, so all statistics are only available for members. The color information is not recorded.
7. 1.2 TDI "3L". (1.2 ТДИ "3Л")
Audi A2 1.2 TDI had the lowest drag coefficient of any car in the world during its launch. He was also one of the most economical and least polluting, only emitting 81 emission standards, g / km D4 German to 86 g / km, emissions standard D3 CO2 emissions. Audi A2 3L uses the engine and special gearbox developed for the equally efficient Volkswagen Lupo 1.2 TDI 3L.
Were available in Germany during the production of two versions of the car. In the D4 version, which used only 3 l / 100 km, 94 mpg ‑IMP, 78 miles to the gallon and the US was "standard". He did not have power steering, air conditioning or other extras, the only extra time is painted in body color door handles and side mirrors. There were no additional services, as additional hardware adds weight and thus reduces the economy. He had a fixed rear seat cushion. The tested fuel economy was 2.88 l / 100 km.
The second version, which was, at least in Germany, was the version of D3 that was still capable of 3.0 litres / 100 km. This version had options for air conditioning, winter package and Comfort package, but was not available in all markets. Ordering these packs ensured power steering or spot lamps as part of the package. The OSS system was not at all to 3l.
Both versions have a thinner glass, lighter seats and 14" wheels from magnesium alloys. Standard bus 145 / 80 C14 t76 Bridgestone Ecopias or continental winter tyres using very flat hubcaps to reduce turbulence. The engine block was also made of light alloy, so even if it was a diesel, he weighed only 100 kg 220 pounds.
The rear spoiler was reshaped, moved and extended through the wind-tunnel tests, and additional underbody panels were added to minimize drag to achieve a 0.25 CD figure. Car automated manual transmission with a Tiptronic mode on the selector. The car also has Eco mode. When enabled, it limits the capacity of 41 HP, 31 kW, 42 HP in addition to the kick-down and programmed the transmission to change to the most economical point. ECO mode also activated the start / stop function, a feature that was new to European cars at that time. In Eco mode, the clutch was turned off when the gas pedal was released for maximum economy, so the car free as possible, with the clutch engagement as soon as the accelerator pedal or the brake pedal is not touched. At 3l is also only 4 wheel bolts and finned alloy brake drums at the rear, along with many aluminum suspension components. Appears internal presentation from Audi to indicate that the complete shell 3L A2 weighs around 15 kg 33 lbs less than the "normal" A2. On the 3l has been noted on the autobahn under non-scientific conditions to be faster at high speed than the standard A2, mainly as a result of very long 5th gear ratio and the excellent aerodynamics.
Was built a total of 6450 model 1.2 TDI.
8. The concept. (Концепция)
At the Frankfurt motor show in September 2011, Audi has demonstrated a fully electric concept car, A2 concept, the survey expected release of the new model A2. The superstructure are mostly made of aluminum, extra parts, carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer, as well as other construction techniques keep the weight only 1.150 kg.
Li-ion battery placed between the floor holds 24 kWh of useful charge. The electric motor is transversely mounted in front of the vehicle, the electric motor provides through its front wheels and one-speed transmission. The car also will include a shift-by-wire, brake-by-wire and steer-by-wire contactless technology and led matrix technology for headlights and tail lights.
In June 2012 magazine UKS reported that the car "Audi" was delivered to the project electric A2 for an indefinite period, after disappointing European sales of other electric vehicles like the Nissan Leaf and Mitsubishi the i-MiEV, with a projected retail price of more than $ 40.000.
It was reported that according to the Director of E-mobility and sustainability strategy at Audi of America, the electric A2 concept was a prototype with a test program, but the one-time concept car will be shown at the auto show.
8.1. The concept. Technical characteristics of the A2 concept 2011. (Технические характеристики концепта А2 2011)
Production of the A2 was announced to be built on the MQB platform, and will include 1.4-liter and 1.8-liter petrol engines with 120 HP to 178 HP, 1.6-liter and 2.0-liter engines 1.6 to less than 100 g / km, and an electric / hybrid version.
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